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1NITROGENOUS ANIMAX FOODS. the flesh, and as it varies in different classes of creatures, it is popularly subdivided into flesh, fish, and fowl, whilst the latter are milk, eggs, and other products.
The first process is solely for the purpose of pre
It is also the rich man’s food, for the flavour, which is naturally or artificially acquired by drying, is highly prized, and although it may not be taken as a necessary by the rich, it is in universal request as a luxury.
A very large quantity of bacon is imported into this country from America and Ireland, and a small portion from Strasburg and Hamburg, the latter having acquired a peculiar flavour by being smoked. Do you agree. That from America is of inferior quality, owing to the defective system of feeding, and particularly to the habit of allowing the pigs to feed on acorns, by which the fat is less solid and more oily, and shrinks on being boiled.
Water 7Nitrogenous 18-Fat 4-Salts 3
An average specimen of the liver of the ox yields 7^ per cent, of carbon and per cent, of nitrogen, or 1,12grains of carbon and 2grains of nitrogen in the lb. ; but if the free hydrogen be reckoned as carbon, the total quantity of carbon will be 1,33grains per lb.
The lungs, or as they are vulgarly termed lights, are eaten as a part of the pluck or fry, and as they are composed almost exclusively of membranes and vessels they contain a high proportion of albumen and other nitrogenous matter. They are not, however, very easily masticated or digested, and could scarcely be eaten alone. It is desirable that they should be well cleansed, and any diseased portion and the glands removed.
Water 6Nitrogenous 13-Fat 16-Salts 2-4
Hence, it is a food affording considerable nutriment, but not very satisfying, for it is fully digested in about one hour, and the stomach soon calls for another supply of food. Moreover, the nitrogenous compounds are rather those of gelatin than of albumen, and are perhaps, therefore, somewhat less valuable as nutriments than the quantity of nitrogen might indicate.
The oil lias too strong a flavour to be used as food, and must be removed before the foot is eaten. This is effected by the application of heat after the free use of the knife, and as the foot is cooked by being boiled in water it is necessary that the oil should be skimmed from the broth that the latter may be fit for food.
The former are frequently prepared at home, and con- sist chiefly of meat which has been chopped finely, bread, and condiments ; and as they are moist and fresh, they cannot be kept long without decomposition.
Snakes of many kinds are eaten in India and in other
EXTEACTS OF MEAT AND FLUID MEAT. 8that the precise value of these foods should be well known, and with the observations which have been made by numerous scientific men, as well as the aid afforded by popular experience, the task is far less difficult than when I first called attention to the subject.
The extracts are prepared by boiling down the flesh of animals, so that thirty-two pounds of flesh are said to be required to prepare one pound of Liebig’s extract.
Artificial beds have been prepared from the time of
Lobsters and crayfish were known to and eaten by our ancestors at least 400 years ago, and in a recipe of the date of 1581, it is directed to roast the lobster in its shell in an oven or in a pan and eat it with vinegar.
They rank higher in price and are certainly more deli- cate in fiavour than crabs, but at the same time they are tougher and more difficult to masticate and digest.
It may be doubted whether there are any foods which are so little desirable in a sanitary point of view, or which so frequently cause indigestion, yet they are extremely popular as a change of food and a luxury, and are as agreeable to the eater as useful to the doctor. They consist chiefly of muscular fibre which is not rich in oil, so that they are most fi^equently eaten with oil and con- into very thin slices and well masticated.
All the kinds referred to require the aid of condi- ments, if not of a stimulating liquor, to promote their digestion, and unless they are perfectly fresh it is desir- able to correct the ammoniacal salts by an acid. A composition of olive oil, pepper, mustard, and vinegar is a very suitable adjunct to the flesh when eaten.
The expedients which are adopted by the natives in cooking it, with a view to keep their appetite for it, are worthy of note. Mr. Bates says : — ‘ The native women cook it in various ways. The entrails are chopped up and made into a delicious soup, called sara- ^atel, which is generally boiled in the concave upper shell of the animal, used as a kettle. The tender flesh of the breast is partially minced with farina, and the breast shell then roasted over the fire, making a very pleasant dish. Steaks cut from the breast and cooked with the fat, form another palatable dish. Large sausages are made of the thick- coated stomach, which is filled with minced meat and boiled. The quarters cooked in a kettle of Tucupi sauce, form another variety of food.
The poorer and cheaper kinds of cheese are largely
Luxurious kinds of cheese, as the Gruyere and Par- mesan, are made from goats’ milk or an admixture of goats’ and cows’ milk, and a certain degree of fermen- colour of Stilton cheese is due to a vegetable growth ; but there are some kinds of cheese which are rendered green bj the addition of powdered sage leaves.
The value of cheese as an article of diet has not been entirely established. If we consider it in its chemical composition we find it very rich, richer than any other known food, in nutritive elements, provided we select a good specimen ; but this varies, as has already been pointed out, with the conditions of its manufacture..
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